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Цель: систематизировать страноведческий материал по теме "London".
Оборудование: интерактивная доска, слайды с достопримечательностями Лондона. -Hello, my dear boys and girls! Today we'll have a competition. Two teams will take part in our competition.
Каждой команде задаётся по двадцать вопросов. После проведения конкурсов команды подсчитывают количество баллов и выявляется команда-победитель.
1. What is London?
London, the capital of Great Britain, is two thousand years old. It is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 9 million people. It is also a huge port city.
2. How was London Founded?
It was founded in the first century A. D. by the Romans. The Romans went to England many, many years ago. They built a town on the river Thames. The name of the town was Londinium. The Romans built Londinium near the river. The place for the town was very good. Soon the Romans built a bridge over the river Thames.
Londinium got bigger and bigger. The Romans built many roads from Londinium to other parts of Britain. After the year 400, the Romans left Britain. We do not know much about Londinium between the years 400 and 1000 A.D. The River Thames has always been part of London’s history. In Romans times Londinium was a small town with the Thames River at its centre. Now, London is a very large city and the Thames is still at the centre of London.
3. Who was William the Conqueror?
In 1066 William the Conqueror and his people went to England from Normandy, France. He became King of England, and lived in London. Many of his people also lived in London. But William was afraid of the English, and of Londoners. Therefore he built the White Tower to live in.
4. What calamities did London suffer in 1665 and in 1666?
In 1665 there was a terrible plague in London. Many people left the city and went to the villages in the surrounding countryside. In 1666 the Great Fire of London ended the plague but it also destroyed much of the city.
5. Where and when did the Great Fire о f London Start?
In those days people usually built houses of wood and they often were near one another. Sometimes there were fires in the city, but they were usually very small. Then came 1666, the year of the Great Fire of London.
On Saturday the 2"d of September 1666, there was a strong wind from the river and the big fire began to spread. It started in the house of the kings baker, near London Bridge. The fire burnt until Thursday. Many houses in London were burnt. The fire burnt for four days and destroyed 80% of the city. After the Great Fire people rebuilt the city.
6. What was London from 369 till 412? How was it known at that time?
From 369 until 412 London was the capital of Britain, back then it was known as Augusta.
7. What museums are most famous and important in London?
The most important museums in London are: The British Museum, the National Gallery, The Tate Gallery and The Victoria and Albert Museum.
8. Which museum presents the finest English paintings and those оf offer countrie оf the World?
The National Gallery has a collection of Italian, Dutch, German and French pictures. It is rich in paintings by Italian masters such as Raphael and Veronese. It is open 7 days a week and admission is free.
9. When was the British Museum Built?
The British Museum, the largest and richest of its kind in the world, was built in the middle of the last century and was initiated in 1753. The collection is enormous and covers ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China, Japan.
10. What is the Tate Gallery?
The Tate Gallery opened in 1897 and is named after Sir Henry Tate. He presented his collection of 65 paintings to the national. Today the collection of the Gallery is very large.
11. What Museum grew out о f the collection о f objects bought for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851?
The Victoria and Albert Museum. It is named after Queen Victoria and her husband. Prince Albert. (V & A)
12. Оf Londons main libraries, which have you read about?
London is one of the most literaly-minded cities in the world. There are many libraries there. The most important are:
The Capitular Library of St. Paul's Cathedral
The British Museum Library
The London Library in St. James Square
Holborns Central Library
Kensingtons New Central Library
13. What London library is the biggest one?
The British Museum Library is the biggest one. It contains about 6 million books with the large circular Reading Room as the centre of the Museum.
14. What library was destroyed by the Great Fire о f London?
The Capitular Library о f St. Paul's Cathedral, the tallest library in London, was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The library was refounded and the collection was built up again.
15. What library occupies the largest municipal public library building о f London? Kensingtons new Central Library.
16. London has no single centre. Do you know why this is so?
London has a number of centres each with distinct characteristics. They are: the City - the financial and business centre; Westminster - the administrative centre of London; the West End -the aristocratic part; the East End - the poorest part of London. The growth of the city explains the fast that London consists of several parts.
17. What is "the City"?
The City is the heart of London, the commercial and business part. Many banks, offices and firms are concentrated there. It is the ancient part of London. Only five thousand people live in the City, but about half a million people come there to work.
18. What is Fleet Street famous for?
Fleet Street is the centre of Britains national newspapers. The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Exprees have offices there. The Times, and The Guardian are hearby.
19. What can you say about Tower Bridge?
Tower Bridge is situated near the Tower of London. It was built in 1894. it regulates a large part of the impressive traffic of the port о f London.
20. What is the Tower о f London?
The Tower is one of the most ancient buildings of London. It is situated in the city. It was founded in the 11th century by William the Conqueror. At the centre of the Tower of London there is the White Tower (1078). It is nearly 30 metres high. The walls are white, tall, strong and thick. It has been a palace, a fortress, a prison, a zoo, a royal treasury, and now it is a museum. There are always black ravens in the Tower of London. People keep them and look after them very well as they believe that London will be rich as long as ravens live there.
21. What do you know about St.Pauls Cathedral?
St. Paul's Cathedral is a masterpiece of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. It took him 35 years to construct this beautiful building. You can see the huge dome with a golden bell and cross on the top. The Cathedral is full of monuments. There is the Whispering Gallery there, person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said.
Many famous people are buried in the Cathedral: Nelson, Wellington, Wren and others. St. Paul's Cathedral was destroyed in 1666, the year of the Great Fire of London. Then the architect rebuilt in. Now it is a beautiful building with columns and towers. In one of its towers there is one of the largest bells in the world.
22. People sav. i f someone close to the wall on one side о f this building, a person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. What place is it?
It's the Whispering Gallery of St. Paul's Cathedral.
23. What do you know about the Palace о f Westminster? Where is it situated? What government office is there?
One the left bank of the Thames there is Westminster Palace, known as the House о f Parliament. It is the seat of British Parliament. The Palace is in Westminster, a central and important part of London.
24. When does the flag f I у on top о f Victoria Tower? When does a light burn above Big Ben? What does it signal for the people о f London?
The Palace of Westminster together with Victoria Tower and the Clock Tower form an architectural complex. The flag flies on top of Victoria Tower when Parliament is in session. When the questions are very important and Parliament works all night, a light burns above Big Ben in the Clock Tower. This reminds the people that Parliament is watching over the nation's interests.
25. Why is the bell in Clock Tower called "Big Ben"?
Big Ben is the name of the clock and the bell in the clock tower, one of the towers о f the Houses of Parliament. You can hear Big Ben chime every hour. The clock and the bell got their names after Sir Benjamin Hall. He was a tall man, whose nickname was Big Ben. This is why people know the clock as Big Ben.
26. What is Westminster Abbey famous for ?
This church is more than 900 yeas old. Westminster Abbey is famous for its architecture and historical associations. It is the church where nearly all the kings and queens have been crowned and where many of them are buried. It is also famous for its Poets' Corner.
27. What is Poets' Corner?
Westminster Abbey is famous for its Poets' Corner. Many great writers are buried there. They are: Dickens, Hardy, Kipling and others. There are also memorials to Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Scott.
28. What is Downing Street famous for?
Whitehall is a wide street which runs from Parliament Square to Trafalgar Square. If you go down Whitehall, on the right you will see a small street where the British Prime Minister lives. He lives at number 10 Downing Street.
29. Why was the square in the centre о f London named Trafalgar?
The centre of London is Trafalgar Square. Some people say it is the most beautiful place in London. It was named in commemoration of Nelson's great victory of l805 over Napoleon. In the middle of the square there stands a tall column. It is a monument to Admiral Nelson. Four bronze lions look at the square from the monument. There also are two beautiful fountains in the square.
30. Where is Piccadilly Circus situated? What is it famous for?
Piccadilly Circus is the centre of night life in the West End. It is also a West End shopping Centre. There are many shops there. Groups of people like to sit around the statue of Eros, the god of love.
31. What is Buckingham Palace? Whose palace is it? What important buildings are there near it? It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth and British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred (600) rooms in the palace and 3 miles of red carpet. Buckingham Palace is like a small town with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar, two sport clubs; a disco, a cinema and a swimming pool. About 700 people work for the Palace. Two men look after the 300 clocks. The Queen's Gallery is in Buckingham Palace Road as well as Royal News.
32. What can you say about the ceremony о f the Changing о f the Guard?
Every day at 11 o'clock in the morning there is a famous ceremony near Buckingham Palace. This is the Changing of the Guard. Many tourists want to see-this ceremony, as thirty guardsmen march to the Palace and take the place of the retiring guard.
33. What is Flvde Park famous for?
London is a green city with a lot of parks. Hyde Park is one of the most popular parks. It has been a royal park since 1536. It is the largest park in London. Lake Saprentine is in the middle of the Park. It is a custom for some people to swim in it on Christmas Day.
Hyde Park is famous for its Speaker's Corner. People go there when they want to tell other people about their political opinions. Another attraction is a house - riding path known as Rotten Row. It is a mile and a half long.
34. Are there any parks in London?
Yes, there are many parks and gardens in London. The most famous are:
Hyde Park, Regent's Park, St. James's Park.
St. James's Park is the oldest one. It is near Buckingham Palace.
Regent's is the most elegant one, with gardens, lakes and the Zoo. There are about 6000 animals there.
Hyde Park is the largest one. It includes the adjoining Kensington Gardens. In Kensington Gardens there stands the Albert Memorial. Albert Hall is nearby. The famous Promenade Concerts are held there.
35. What is the East End?
London is a big city consisting of several parts. The poorest part of London is called the East End. There are poor houses and dirty streets. Most working people live in the East End. All the factories, mills and docks are in the East End. The East End markets are very famous and the East End is also the centre of the clothing industry in London.
36. What is the West End?
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. Fine buildings, theatres, museums, and big shops are there in the West End. The best streets and parks are there, too.
37. What people are called "cockney"?
Traditionally someone born in the East End is known as a cockney. Now this name is given to anyone who speaks like a Londoner. Cockneys have problems with "Th" and say "nuffink" instead of "nothing".
38. Traffic in London differs from that о f the Continent, doesn 4 it ?
Yes, it differs. In England they keep to the left, not to the right. In England people say: "If you go left, you go right. If you go right, you go wrong".
39. What can you sav about London traffic?
In London you can see many buses, cars, taxis, and the London Underground. There are two kinds of buses in London the red double - decker and the red single - decker. There are no trams in London. London traffic differs from that of the Continent.
40. What do you know about London's theatres?
Most British cities have a theatre, but London has the greatest number. There are over 50 theatres in London's West End and about 35 smaller theatres. Going to the theatre is not only popular, but also expensive. The most famous British theatres are the National Theatre and the Barbican. There is also a National Youth Theatre, with a high standard of performance. Opposite the Old Vic, home of the National Theatre Company, there has been built the Young Vic.
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