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Проектирование учебных заданий на уроках английского языка |
в соответствие с таксономией Блума
Современный учитель в своей педагогической деятельности часто задает себе вопросы: Как сделать процесс обучение более эффективным? Какие приемы и способы организации познавательной деятельности необходимо использовать на уроке для эффективного усвоения учащимися знаний, выработку умений и навыков.
Использование таксономии Блума при проектировании заданий позволяет учителю правильно ставить цели и задачи, эффективно организовывать образовательный процесс, направленный на учащихся с разным уровнем знаний и их индивидуальными особенностями, правильно проводить рефлексию всего обучения.
Таксономия Блума охватывает когнитивную область и включает в себя шесть категорий:
- знание (конкретного материала, терминологии, фактов, определений, критериев и т.д.);
- понимание (объяснение, интерпретация, экстраполяция);
- анализ (взаимосвязей, принципов построения);
- синтез (разработка плана и возможной системы действий, получение системы абстрактных отношений);
- оценка (суждение на основе имеющихся данных, суждение на основе внешних критериев).
Designing learning tasks according to the taxonomy of B. Blum
№ Categories of cognitive activities Specification of cognitive activities
Memorization of specific information. 1. Answer the questions. (What? When? Where? How many? )
2. Call names, places
3. Do the test.
Understanding of the material independently of the other material. 1. Answer the questions (Why? How?)
2. Explain the purpose and reason of smth.
3. Translate the word combinations, sentences
4. True or false? Correct the false statement.
5. Complete the sentences.
6. Retell smth.
7. Describe smth.
8. Сlassify smth.
9. Tell your partner.
10. Call smth as more as you can.
11. Make a list of smth
Using Using the methods, concepts, principles and theories in new situations. 1. Make a plan of the text.
4. Give examples of smth.
5. Draw a diagram.
6. Prove that…
The division of information on the constituent elements. 1. Analyze this scheme, give your comments.
2. Supplement this scheme or diagram with your ideas or examples.
3. Compare smth and make a conclusion.
4. Make questions.
5. Make a summery.
6. List the main ideas of the text and explain what they mean.
5. Synthesis Making the integer of the particular parts. 1. Determine advantages and disadvantages of smth.
2. Make a plan of a research.
3. Suggest ways of solve problem’s
4. Suggest an alternative.
5. Write the essay.
6. Make and act a dialogue.
7. Write an article for teens magazine.
6. Evaluation Determining the value of the materials and methods when
aims, standards and criteria are defined. Estimate the influence of smth on smth.
Give an assessment of smth.
Estimate smth using the criteria.
Create criteria of evaluation and evaluate the project/ performance/ article/ essay.
The Great fire of London
The London of the middle of the 17th century was a city of narrow, dirty streets. Indeed, the streets were so narrow that it was often possible for a person at a window on one side of the street to shake hands with a neighbour on the other side. There was little light and air. Rubbish lay in dark corners. It is no wonder that epidemics were common.
The greatest epidemic of the plague broke out in 1665.
It was a sad time for London. The streets were empty, shops were closed and there were few boats on the Thames. Every house in which there were sick people was shut up, and no one was allowed to go in or out, and the door of the house was marked with a red cross.
The following year the Great Fire took place. It broke out late on a Saturday night in a street not far from London Bridge. The summer had been dry, a hot east wind blew and the fire spread quickly. This is what we read in the diary of John Evelyn, who saw the terrible fire with his own eyes. The Thames was covered with boats full of people. On the other side one could see carts carrying out the saved goods out into the fields and people putting up tents. At night the fire could be seen ten miles away.
The fire burned for five days and destroyed the greater part of the city. But it did the city good, as it cleared away the old wooden houses and dirty, narrow streets.
A monument near London Bridge still marks the spot where the fire broke out. Sir Christopher Wren, the famous architect of that day, took part in rebuilding the city. The greater part of it had been of wood, but after the fire wider streets and brick houses were built. The old church of St. Paul was among the buildings destroyed by the fire. In its place Wren built the present St. Paul's Cathedral. He lies buried under the roof of his own great work. These words are written on his grave: "Reader, it you want to see his monument, look around."
narrow - узкий
indeed - в действительности, фактически
rubbish - мусор
plague - чума
sick – болезнь, больной
brake out- вспыхивать
spread - распространяться
cart – телега, повозка
№ Категории когнитивной деятельности Задания
I. Answer the questions.
1. Were the streets narrow and dirty in London in middle of the 17th century?
2. When did the greatest epidemic of the plague break out in London?
3. What could you see on the door of the house in which there were sick people?
4. When did the Great Fire take place in London?
5. Could the fire be seen twenty miles away?
6. How many days was the fire burning?
7. Who built the present St. Paul's Cathedral?
8. Where was the famous architect of that day who built the present St. Paul's Cathedral buried?
9. What words can you read on the grave of St. Paul's Cathedral’s architect?
II. Do the test
1. Complete the sentence.
In … the Great Fire took place.
A) 1666 1665 C ) 1664 D) 1667 E) 1668
2. Answer the questions
What disease was in London when the Great Fire took place?
A) diphtheria German measles C) malaria D) scab
3. Answer the questions
How many days was The fire burning?
A) 5 4 C) 3 D)10 E) 15
4. Complete the sentence.
… near London Bridge still marks the spot where the fire broke out.
A) A statue A museum C) A park D) A monument E) St. Paul's Cathedral’s
5. What famous architect of that day took part in rebuilding the city.
A) Sir Christopher Vren Sir George Wren C) Sir Ben Wren D) Sir Christopher Wren E) Mrs Ann Wren
I. Answer the questions.
1. Why did the greatest epidemic of the plague break out in London?
2. Why did the fire spread quickly?
II. Describe London before the Great Fire and after it.
III. Complete the sentences.
1. The London of the middle of the 17th century was a city of …, …streets.
2. The greatest epidemic of the … broke out in ….
3. Every house in which there were sick people was shut up and the door of the house was marked with a … .
4. It broke out late on a Saturday night in a street not far from London … .
5. The summer had been dry, a hot east wind blew and the fire spread ....
Using I. Make a plan of the text.
II. Prove that the Great Fire help people lived in London of that time
I. Make questions to the text.
II. Make a summery.
Synthesis I. Determine advantages and disadvantages of the Great Fire in London.
II. Imagine that you are a person who lived in 1666 in London and watched the Great Fire, write the letter to your descendants describing that night.
Evaluation I. Estimate the influence of the Great Fire on London’s History.
II. Create criteria of evaluation the article “The Great fire of London”
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