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USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN TEACHING |
teacher of English, Zhetysu State University named after I.Zhansugurov,
teacher of English, Astana Humanitarian college, email@example.com
Аутентичные материалы являются одними из наиболее важных инструментов, которые преподаватель может и должен использовать на уроках, чтобы сделать его эффективным для передачи необходимых знаний всем учащимся. В этой статье описывается влияние использования аутентичных материалов на преподавание, поскольку в ряде исследований указывается, что использование аутентичных материалов считается полезным средством мотивации учащихся, пробуждает их интерес и раскрывает их реальному миру
The purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to benefit from using it in the real world, in real situations. Therefore, most of the language teachers think whether it is enough to teach the language using the course book tasks , which are regarded artificial because they are designed for teaching purposes only, or if they should adopt using authentic materials to scaffold learners' learning process in general and develop reading skills in particular. Therefore, when teachers are concerned with helping their students to develop reading skills, they should think about the methods of teaching being used and materials being taught to students. Reading tasks should provide learners with a high level of independence when reading in a foreign language in a real life context, which in turn means, using actual authentic materials.
The use of authentic materials in EFL classes is not new, because teachers started using them in the 1970s as a result of the spread of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. There were a number of studies engaged with studying authenticity and the use of authentic materials in EFL classes. For many researchers, authenticity is very significant, because it prepares the learners for the real world situations in terms of using the target language. If teaching materials are not interesting and motivating, learners will learn nothing. Using inappropriate teaching materials makes learners face difficulties in learning a foreign language. Learners need to be motivated to succeed in learning any language. Therefore, teaching materials must be motivating and raise learners' interest. In order to help learners learn better, a lot of researchers suggest using authentic materials (AM). Authentic materials help motivate learners to learn the language by making them feel that they are learning the 'real' language (Guariento & Morely, 2001). Whereas Hyland (2003, p. 94) states that one of the most important advantages of using authentic materials is that it increases learners' motivation and reflects positively on the learning process. On the other hand, using less authentic materials with our learners, may lead to less practice in the real world.
Genhard (1996) classified authentic materials into three categories as follows:
1. Authentic listening materials, such as radio news, cartoons, songs, etc.
2. Authentic visual materials, such as street signs, magazines and newspapers pictures, post cards, etc.
3. Authentic printed materials, such as sports reports, newspapers, restaurant menus, train tickets, etc.
So, why use of Authentic material? -Because:
-A natural model –encourages them to be better readers/listeners.
-This is the final aim –what they will have to do eventually
-Students who read and listen intensively acquire language faster, better
- motivating if successful.
- topic can be topical, interesting
Task examples can be done with authentic materials:
-scanning the texts
- Looking at text organization: paragraphing, topic sentences
-listening for gist
- listening for specific information
How to Select Authentic Materials?
According to McGrath (2002) there are eight criteria to be considered when choosing appropriate authentic texts.
(1) Relevance to course book and learners' needs,
(2) Topic interest
(3) Cultural fitness
(4) Logistical considerations
(5) Cognitive demands
(6) Linguistic demands
(7) Quality and (8) Exploitability
Although using authentic materials in teaching a foreign language is recommended by many researchers, we should ask ourselves whether it is appropriate for all students at all levels. One important point is that when using authentic materials, we must bear in mind the learners' level. This is vital to obtain the highest level of benefit from using authentic materials in the classroom. In other words, if the materials are beyond the learners' ability or level, it might lead to demotivation and discourage learners from learning the target language. Kim (2000) and Kilickaya (2004) state that authentic materials can be used with advanced and intermediate level learners only. Other researchers such as Miller (2005) and McNeil (1994) have another view. They believe that authentic materials can be used even with lower level learners.
It is obvious that the use of authentic materials in language teaching is supported by many researchers. They regard the use of this type of materials as a useful means to motivate learners, arouse their interest and expose them to real language they will face in the real world. In addition, authentic materials encourage learners to learn a particular language successfully, because they notice they are dealing with the language in real life. According to Guariento & Morely (2001), authentic materials help to motivate learners learn the language by making them feel they are learning the 'real' language. In addition, Hyland (2003, p. 94) states that one of the most important advantages of using authentic materials, is that it increases learners‘motivation and reflects positively on their learning process.
Furthermore, the results of the study carried out by researches prove that using authentic materials in teaching English to EFL learners is "more effective than using non-authentic materials’’.
And for this can be suggested next websites to help teachers to use authentic materials in FL classrooms:
- Genhard, J., G. (1996). Teaching English as a foreign language: A teacher self-development and methodology. Ann arbor: the university of Michigan press. - Guariento, W. & J. Morely (2001) Text and task authenticity in the EFL classroom. ELT Journal, 55 (4), 347-353.
- Kim, D. (2000). A qualitative approach to the authenticity in the foreign language classroom: a study of university students learning English in Korea. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 5 (1), 189-205
- Harmer, J. 1994. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.
 Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Herod, L. (2002). Adult learning from theory to practice. Heinle and Heinle Publishers. Heinemann
-.  Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2000). An instructional design framework for authentic Hyland, K. 2003. Second Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Jacobson, E., Degener, S., & Purcell-Gates, V., (2003). Creating authentic materials and activities for the adult literacy classroom: A handbook for practitioners. USA: NCSALL.
- Kim, D. (2000). A qualitative approach to the authenticity in the foreign language classroom: a study of university students learning English in Korea. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 5 (1), 189-205.
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